What is kernal?
Kernal refers to the commodore’s 8-bit operating System. It was originated from PET of 1977, which now has several enhanced versions and successors like the VIC 20. C16, C128 etc.
> Kernal consisted of both low level as well as high level functions, including the close to the hardware routines to the device independent input/output functionality.
> Kernal ROM occupies only the last 8 kb of the 8 bit computer.
Technobezz Explains Kernal
Kernal can be defined as the Commodore’s name given to the Read only memory resident OS in 8-bit computers. It was originally written for the commodore PET, who came up with the idea of separating BASIC routine operations from the OS. Then several other features were added to its new versions.
> The word KERNAL stands for Keyboard Entry Read Network And Link, which in short tells all about its working and related operations.
> Kernal also implemented device independent input/output API.
> Kernal is responsible for managing system calls, so that programmers can easily intercept the calls and allocate the resources accordingly.
> Kernal provides no dynamically allocating device ID’s. It even doesn’t prefer loading reloadable binary images which can be a burden for the user to allocate I/O space and memory space.